It causes diseases of the joints, can disrupt a person’s motor reflexes.
Each condition has its own distinctive features, and the results of his work and health depend on which of them the human body is in.
The concept of working conditions and the need to improve them in enterprises
Performing any work for a long time is accompanied by fatigue of the body, which is manifested in a decrease in human performance. Along with physical and mental work, a significant effect on fatigue is exerted by the production environment, ie the conditions in which its work takes place.
Working conditions are a set of factors of the production environment that affect the functional state of the body of workers, their health and ability to work. They are determined by compare and contrast essay cheap to buy the used equipment, technology, objects and products of labor, the system of protection of workers, service of workplaces and the external factors depending on a condition of industrial premises creating a certain microclimate. Thus, based on the nature of the work performed, working conditions are specific to each production, shop and site, and for each workplace. There is another definition of “working conditions”.
Working conditions are a complex objective social phenomenon that is formed in the process of work under the influence of interrelated factors of socio-economic, technical-organizational and natural nature and affecting human health, ability to work, his attitude to work and the degree of job satisfaction, labor efficiency and other economic results of production, living standards and comprehensive human development as the main productive force of society.
This definition gives a holistic description of working conditions: their nature as an objective phenomenon, the mechanism of formation and the main directions of action on the working person, efficiency, impact on social development. This definition specifies the terms “production environment” and “working conditions” which are the unity of the two parties. On the one hand, these are the factors that influence the formation of working conditions, and on the other – the elements that make up working conditions. The elements of working conditions include, for example, temperature, gassiness, etc., ie everything that directly affects the working person, his health, ability to work and social development.
According to the Ministry of Labor and Social Development, the depreciation of fixed assets of enterprises has approached 60%, the share of obsolete technologies and equipment in some industries is more than 80%. unsatisfactory working conditions are often the main cause of high levels of occupational injuries, general occupational diseases.
Russia annually loses almost 2% of GDP (more than 500 billion rubles) due to unsatisfactory working conditions, injuries and deaths in the workplace.
Accidents at work and occupational diseases are not only a human tragedy, but also the cause of the most serious, as I said above, economic losses. According to Rosstat, the share of those employed in jobs that do not meet sanitary and hygienic requirements, as well as the number of newly diagnosed occupational diseases is growing steadily.
In 2007, compared to 2005, the absolute number of employees working on equipment that does not meet safety requirements increased slightly. At the same time, during 2005-2007, the total number of employees working on such equipment changed slightly and to slightly more than 50 thousand people annually.
The fact that more than a third of workers, a significant part of whom are women, are employed in hazardous and (or) dangerous working conditions is evidenced by the performance of various compensations for working conditions, which are not yet declining. Every year about 5,000 people of working age die at work.
Classification of factors that make up the level and condition of working conditions
Sanitary and hygienic conditions are formed under the influence of the human environment (harmful chemicals, dusty air, vibration, lighting, noise level, infrasound, ultrasound, electromagnetic field, laser, ionizing, ultraviolet radiation), microclimate, bioorganism. Bringing these factors in line with modern norms, standards and standards is a prerequisite for normal human performance.
Favorable sanitary and hygienic working conditions contribute to the preservation of human health and the maintenance of a stable level of his ability to work. Work to improve working conditions involves primarily improving the equipment, technology and physicochemical properties of raw materials, as well as further improving production processes, taking into account a set of sanitary norms, standards and requirements.
The concept of meteorological conditions (microclimate) of the production environment includes temperature, humidity, air movement and its barometric pressure. Increased or decreased against the norm temperature and humidity cause additional production costs of human energy, reduce productivity. Systematic cooling and warming of the body can lead to various diseases.
Cold industries are those in which heat from surrounding objects, people, sunlight does not exceed 20 kcal per 1 m3 per hour. At low temperatures, the mobility of the extremities is reduced, attention is blunted, the body expends additional energy to maintain a normal temperature.
At a high temperature breath becomes more frequent, water and salt balance of an organism as a result of plentiful allocation of sweat is broken, body temperature can rise to 39 ° C. Water losses in hot industries reach 5-8 liters per shift, ie 7-10% of human weight.
To create a favorable microclimate in the workplace and in production facilities, it is necessary to seal the equipment, cover and insulate the evaporation surface of liquids, thermal insulation of the heat source, as well as automate and mechanize processes with excessive heat and moisture.
Noise and vibration are physically similar in many ways, but one is perceived by hearing, the other by touch. Currently, noise is one of the most common external factors, including the production environment. Noise is characterized by the volume (level), defined in decibels (dB), frequency in hertz (Hz) and frequency range in octaves. In this case, the level of sound intensity causes a person different sensations. Thus, at 50-60 dB there is a feeling of calm and comfort, at 60-80 – only a feeling of comfort, noise of 90 dB – is quite acceptable, 100 dB – a feeling of noise, 110 dB – discomfort, 120 dB – a feeling of anxiety, 130 dB – painful sensation.
The greatest influence is exerted by high-frequency sounds even at the same force (level). Harmful effects of noise affect the nervous and cardiovascular systems, the digestive system, increase blood pressure, dulls attention and leads to fatigue. In this case, the level of sound intensity causes a person different sensations.
Vibration accompanies many production processes. It causes diseases of the joints, can disrupt a person’s motor reflexes. It is characterized by frequency (in Hz) and amplitude (in mm).
Vibrations affect a person differently, while the nature of the action should distinguish between local and general vibrations. General vibration causes shaking of the floor, walls, local vibration affects a limited area of the body.
To reduce noise and vibration in workplaces, areas and shops, it is first necessary to eliminate the causes of vibration in their source. To this end, various design solutions are used in the modernization of equipment and processes. Reduction of intensity of noise and vibration is reached: by means of facing of walls, ceilings by sound-absorbing and sound-insulating coverings; elimination or reduction of abrupt changes in pressure, vortex movements in machines and equipment; use of spring cushions; removal of “noisy” shops outside the premises where people work; precise adjustment of all parts and debugging of their work, the use of mufflers and personal protective equipment, etc.
Psychophysiological conditions – the amount of physical, dynamic and static loads, working posture, pace of work, attention, intensity of analyzer functions, monotony, nervous and emotional stress, aesthetic (cleaning toilets, working with manure, excrement, etc.) and physical discomfort (use of personal protective equipment, variability). Limitation and regulation of physical effort, the optimal combination of physical and mental work have a significant impact on reducing worker fatigue.
Aesthetic conditions (color design of interiors of premises and workplaces, landscaping of industrial and domestic premises, adjacent territories, provision of overalls, etc.). All these factors have an effect on the worker through the creation of an emotional production background. It is pleasant, easier and productive to work in a workplace equipped with modern equipment, the design of which takes into account ergonomic requirements, when the aesthetically expressive appearance of equipment, mechanisms, tools, premises, work clothes is observed.
The production interior is an aesthetically designed architectural and artistic interior of industrial buildings. Creating a production interior requires:
clear composition of internal space and rational planning of workplaces; systematized placement of the main technological equipment and expedient laying of internal passages, passages, sanitary-technical and technological communications. optimal lighting system and “color climate”, ie painting surfaces and objects in the room; general arrangement of the premises (recreation areas, visual information, etc.).
When creating a production interior should take into account: the purpose of the building, its volume and area; features of technological process; mode of work and rest; nature of equipment; psychological and aesthetic effect of different combinations of compositions and colors on a person; climatic features, etc.
Color design plays an important role in creating a favorable production environment. Conventionally, it performs two functions, being a means of information and a means of psychological comfort.
As a means of information, color is used to guide workers in the production environment and in the operation of equipment. Orientation in the production environment involves the use of color to indicate traffic routes, marking communications and ensuring the safety of workers.